X-ray, a CT scan, and an MRI may be used.
Osteoporosis in the advanced stages can be seen on X-ray.
A bone density (Dexa) scan can assess the degree of osteoporosis.
Measurement Of Hyperkyphosis
The kyphosis angle (or “Cobb’s angle”) is measured on x-ray by drawing lines along the vertebrae at T4 and T12, the start and end of the kyphosis. Perpendicular lines then give the angle of the kyphosis. A 40° curve in young adults is considered normal, but curves over 40° can start to give problems and create a small hump at the back of the neck.
As we grow from childhood to the age of 30, the angle of the spine changes from 20° to 29°. After about forty, the angle increases as ageing, wear and tear and degeneration starts, more rapidly in women, from about 43° in 55-60 years old to 52° at 80 years of age. The spine shortens and the average person loses about half an inch every 10 years due to spinal compression. As the kyphotic angle increases, physical performance and quality of life often decreases, making early prevention for hyperkyphosis a top priority.